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History of the Kola Land
History » History of the Kola Land » The Kola Land as a part of Russian Empire (XVIII - the beginning of .)

The Kola Land as a part of Russian Empire
(XVIII - the beginning of .)

In the beginning of XVIII century Peter the First decided to create whaling in Zapolyarye. Three large vessels were built, but after Peter's deaf "Kola whaling" failed.

By the middle of the century the economy of the region fell into decay. In the beginning of 60s years there were 4 thousand centners fish. The reason of the trade decade was monopolies, the right representation to a person or group of persons to buy products of some trade. Monopolists bought trade products cheaply, and a result a lot of small entrepreneurs became bankrupts.

Some trouble for trade development was monastery landed property. For instance, Pechenga Monastery had got about a quarter of the Kola Peninsula. Monks farmed them out to manufacturers.

The Government of Catherine the Great decided to conduct large reforms, it also influenced the Kola Peninsula.

In 1764 Pechenga Monastery ceased to exist. Trade and agricultural lands went to peasants and Saami.

In 1768 monopolies were abolished: manufacturers were allowed to sell the production within the country.

In 1809 Englishmen attacked the Kola Peninsula. They knew perfectly about the absence of armed forces on the Kola Peninsula.

They came on Murman on the 5th of May of 1809. They captured ten trade and transport vessel, a lot of flour, salt, fish, gunpowder and the other property.

The Kola Land was attacked during the Crimea War.

In June of 1854 English and French squadron came here. On the 10th August English corvette "Miranda", there were about 200 sailors on its board. During the fight the Resurrection cathedral, a lot of houses and storehouses were burned. The Kola Land was damaged greatly. A lot of trades came to decay. In December of 1858 the Kola Peninsula was included in the Kemsk district. All the administrative institutions on the Kola Peninsula were closed.


But reforms of 60 - 70s crated conditions for more rapid development of the country. Remote territories were involved in the sphere of agriculture. In the beginning of 70s the group of entrepreneurs under the support of the government founded Association, which bought two vessels in England and organized its regular movement along the Murmansk coast, later appeared the other marine routes. Maritime communications became an important factor in the development of the Kola land.

In 1895 started the building of telegraph line from Kemp to Vorjema (common point on the board with Norway).

Great role in the economy of Murman played factories, different establishments including shop, storage and some industrial enterprises. The first factory on the Kola Peninsula was opened 1869.

Different new industries appeared on the Kola Peninsula, sawmill industry can be named among these industries.

N. Rusanov founded the first sawmill plant on the Berezovy Island in 1891.

Later appeared some more plants on the Kola Peninsula.


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