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History of the Kola Land
History » History of the Kola Land » The Kola Land is a part of Moscow Russia (the end of V - VII.)

The Kola Land is a part of Moscow Russia
(the end of V - VII.)

In 1478 the Kola North together with the other Novgorod lands became the part of Moscow State. Its factual center was situated in Kandalaksha.

At this time tribal system was broken and Christianity was adopted. Deer appeared in their farms and they began to use them for food and transportation.

The number of Russian settlers increased and new settlements appeared, such as Kuzomen, Tetrino, Chpomu, Chavangu, Pyalitsu.

Coast-dweller occupation was fishing

The main trade of Pomors was maritime trade. At first it was catching of marine animals. But then fish trade began to develop. Special vessels were used in fish catching, they were called karbases (then shnyaks) and very long special equipment, that provided with high efficiency. Trade of fish catching took place in the sea in a distance of 5-30 kilometers from the coast. The most favorable seasons were spring and summer.

Totally about 2 thousand fishermen gathered in the Kola Peninsula for the fish catching period. Herring trade appeared on the Tersk shore, inhabitants of Kandalaksha, Knyazhya Guba, Kovda, Porya Guba and Umba were involved in this trade.

By the middle of the XVI century Norwegian and Danish vessels came for the fish purchase. The Duch appeared a little bit later.

Russian merchants started to deliver their goods to Murman, the first among them were the Stroganovs. As a result trade increased here greatly. Since the end of 60s the main trade point became Kola. Kola appeared in the middle of XVI as a settlement of fishermen. The town of Kola had constant inhabitants. It was situated closer to Kandalaksha (in comparison with Kegor and Pechenga) and was less approachable for sea-dogs.

If in the beginning of 1565 there were just 3 yards in Kola, in 1574 this number increased up to 44, by 1582 - 71, the number of population was more 400 people. The most of inhabitants caught fish and traded, they also repaired vessels, built new ones, provided people with bread, rented store houses for salt storage, food and equipment storage.

They gave trade products (salmon, herring, halibut, fish fat, furs) to foreigners in exchange for "dry goods" (material, copper, tin), than they resold it and bought flour, material, trade equipment and etc.

stockaded town Kola (reconstruction, fragment)
Museum of regional
International trade helped to increase the economical life of Pomorye

At the end of XVI the Kola Land was attacked from the outside. Denmark started to hinder from the trade on Murman. Danish squadron captured foreign ships in Russian waters, nearby Kola. In 1589 Swedish people robbed and burned Kandalaksha and Pechenga monastery, killed all the people, robbed Kovda, Umba, Porya and Knyakhya guba. But in a year in 1589/90 and in the summer of 1591 they were defeated. But in 1585 international trade was transferred from Murmasn to Arkhangelsk.

At the same time for the defensive purposes Moscow government settled a voevod department in Kola. The first voevoda was boyard Averky Palitsin. In 1625 500 archers and 9 cannons were in Kola. Kola became administrative center of the land. The Kola district consisted of Lapland (the Kola Peninsula without Umba and Varzuga) and northern Karelia.

Burg was built in Kola by order of government. The central part of Kola was palisaded, at corners were built four turrets with loopholes.

Walls were replaced by fence later. Kola acquired the shapes of towns.


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