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Relief and hydro net

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Nature » Relief and hydro net

Relief and hydro net

Relief and hydro net
Relief of the region was formed under influence of geological structure of the region and activity of glacier. The feature of relief is the north and west orientation of large orographical elements. The north and the south coasts of the Kola Peninsula (Murmansk and Kandalaksha coasts) are in the same directions. The central and the western part of the region are presented by mountain relief: Khibiny, Lovozero, Salny, Volchy, Chuna and Monche tundra with the altitude of 900-1200 above the sea level. Mountain tundra is plain alps without forests. The eastern part is hilly waterlogged plain. There are some differences in the relief of the Barents Sea and the White Sea. Along the northern coast stretches high plain, breaking to the sea with rocky benches of 100-150 metres. This high plain is splited with narrow and cross fjords. The coast of the White Sea is presented by low plain. The main background of the relief is flat hills and valley. There is the highest point of the region in Khibiny; it is mountain of Udichvumchorr (1208m).

More then hundred thousand lakes fulfill hollows of different dimensions in the relief of crystal layers, on tundra plato, on hill plains smoothed by glacier. The largest basins are the Imandra lake (816 m2), the Umbozero (313 m2), the Lovozero (200 m2) and artificial ponds (Verkhnetulimskoye (745 m2), Knyazhgubskoye (606 m2), Serebryanskoye (231 m2).

There are more then 20616 streams and rivers in the region. Majority of rivers spring from lakes and swamps. Their sources are quite high (from 1000 to 300 m above the sea level). Most of them have rapids and they are quite swift.

River and lake waters are clear and pure, they are characterized with poor mineralization. Rivers and lakes are used for the water supply of towns, villages and enterprises of the region. Hydroelectric power stations function on the Paz, the Tuloma, the Niva, the Kovda, the Voronya, the Teriberka rivers. Each station has pond for the flow adjustment.

The coast of the Barents Sea from
the Murta-Tunturri range
Rivers and lakes are rich in fish. Here you can find such kinds of fish as salmon, trout, bulltrout, loach, white fish, umber, pike, perch, burbot, roach, smelt. Last years as a consequence of water pollution, we can observe reduction of fish resources.

 

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